Personality frameworks are crude, but useful. I like to view them as a rational approach to a first impression.
On a high level, the Myerrs-Briggs contains 4 dichotomies: (1) where you get your energy. (2) how you perceive the external world. (3) How you internally synthesize and make decisions. (4) how you find structure in the world.
The Four Dichotomies
Introvert/Extrovert: this refers to where you get your energy. Do you get it from being around other people (extrovert)? Or by being by yourself / smaller social environments (introvert)?
Intuitive/Sensing: This refers to how you perceive the external world. Intuitives tend more towards looking for underlying patterns, and take a ‘big picture’ perspective. Those with a stronger Sensing are more concrete, like examples, and extrapolate from experience.
Thinking/Feeling: This refers to how you internally synthesize and make decisions. “Thinking” is more rationality driven, and “Feeling” is more about following your gut. Contemporary behavioral psychology makes this dichotomy crude by recognizing the strengths and weaknesses of both. But again, this framework is still useful.
Perceiving/Judging: This refers to how you find structure in the world. Perceiving is more non-committal, and likes to gather as much information as possible before making decision. Judging prefers to have decisions made, likes lists, and likes to create lots of structures/compartments in their life/world.
Don’t cling to MBPT too tightly; it will limit your view of the subjective state space. You can break from this framework by collecting more personality frameworks (like enneagrams), and by cultivating a situationalist view.